The European Energy Measurement System on board of trains
Andrea Gatti, Antonio Ghelardini
Trenitalia s.p.a. - Direzione Tecnica - Ingegneria Rotabili e Tecnologie di Base
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A sound knowledge about energy needs and how to manage them represents the way to improve the efficiency of the systems. We can move people in a greener way, using less energy and reach a better quality of life.
Institutional and regulatory framework
The liberalization of European railway markets, pushed by the separation between infrastructure and carrier companies in each European country, leads to an increase of cross-border traffic. In this new scenario, market competition and cost transparency will make the difference.
Sustainable development efforts already mandatory in EU Countries leads to some changes to the current energy management: this will force the passage from conventional consumption cost to cost based on effective consumption for traction energy. So, new energy billing rules will be used into inter-operable railway networks.
Energy meter Data are necessary input for railway undertakings in their energy management work. Train driving
techniques can have a significant effect on the energy consumed for trains operating over the same route with the same stopping patterns. By using accurate energy data, railway undertakings can optimize driving technique,
climate control and parking mode. It is documented that this delivers at least 10% of improvement in energy efficiency. Knowing how much energy is used and being billed accurately provides an incentive to railway
undertakings to reduce energy consumption.
Figure 1 – Country Boundary and Tariff Boundary Concept
Country Boundary and Tariff Boundary are concepts in evolution, actually it is quite simple to speak about Country Boundary. Historical political border are still present and Relevant border position for billing of energy (bilaterally coordinated) could exist, but if we think in terms of future integration inside the EU we will start to speak about Tariff Boundary and the Relevant Border Position become a dynamic point. In Figure 1 each track is operated by a different Energy Provider and each code represent a possible Energy Provider. The EMS is obliged to evolve in that direction and some of the traction unit side key points could be summarized as :
The Consumption Point (CP) is an identified Traction Unit (TU) equipped by certified EMS devices where the number of CP are defined by the consist architecture (Multi-voltage systems, n° of traction units etc).
Billing and Energy Saving purposes data exchange, not limited to simple file transfers, drives to a near real time communication infrastructure between train and ground. The Cross-Border services either in terms of Country boundary or Tariff Boundary drive to an Open Communication Infrastructure. Some of the key points from the Railway Undertakings (RU) and Infrastructure Manager (IM) point of view:
The installation of energy meters on board and new settlement systems will help to achieve the goal of full inter-operability for railway traffic in Europe and will finally facilitate the free market for RU.
Figure 2 - EU Energy and Transport in figures
The Energy Measurement System (EMS)
Trenitalia efforts are focused mainly in defining an open platform to implement and deploy the needed services for Energy Saving and Billing purposes. Other task is defining a suitable framework able to manage the Conformity Assessment of the Energy Measurement System (EMS) and the Certification of the Installation Procedure. For existing vehicles that will need to be retrofitted with EMS installation, design and deployment plays a significant role and this framework was defined to deals with. This method is summarized in Figure 3 and proposed by Trenitalia as a standard solution in Cenelec TC9X WG11 EN 50463 . The different phases of the Certification approach are ranging from the Component homologation to the EMS installation certification. The combination of a Certified EMS installed on a Traction Unit (i.e. locomotive, EMU etc) using a Certified Installation Procedure is defined as Consumption Point (CP). The Consumption Data either for billing purpose or energy saving purpose are referred to the Consumption Point Identifier. The Certified Installation Procedure become part of the Traction Unit Maintenance Plan and could be performed according the RU Quality Assurance Procedures.
The train is a moving object and it’s not a fixed building. The EN 50463 Energy Measurement System is the first mobile energy meter in the history of human being.
This method allows the conformity assessment arrangements for newly manufactured EMS installed on a traction unit, including the integration conformity assessment and installation conformity assessment. In addition, this also allows the conformity assessment procedures for device and ancillary component replacement (e.g. due to damage in service), and periodical check to verify that the EMS conformity assessment remains valid and confirming metrological properties. This confirm that the EMS can continue to be used. The EMS certification process, inside the Life Cycle of the vehicles, is more than a metrological assessment.
Installation on existing vehicles
This method was applied as trial test to an existing consist: the multi-voltage (25kV AC and 3kV DC) ETR500 Frecciarossa. The ETR500 is normally composed by two E404 series locomotives and 11 coaches. Each E404 is equipped as illustrated in Figure 6. Some of the existing sensors and transducers where used “as is”. They are able to fulfill the EMS requirements, while others where replaced with improved ones pin-to-pin compatible. All wiring had been verified in order to fulfill the EN 50463.
On board to Ground Communication
The Cross-Border services either in terms of Country boundary or Tariff Boundary drive to an Open and Standardized Communication Infrastructure. The train, as a cluster of devices connected by a network, is "a mobile object" that is performing some services like passenger information, train identification, fleet management
and energy measuring for billing and saving purposes.
The EMS will play an important role in fleet management. The train is connected to the ground section with a pool of wireless connections and is capable to switch between them “on the fly” according to the requirement of bandwidth requested by the “service”. These services are accessible through the standard interface.
The behavior of the Mobile Communication Gateway (MCG) depends by the EMS architecture: in case of shared MCG, it acts as a proxy, representing the train functional structure to the ground network; in case of dedicated MCG, it acts as an IP sub domain device allowing each function/services to be reachable through its
functional address. Functional addressing is one of the key point managed by the IEC TC9 WG46 - Onboard multimedia systems for railways.
Independently from the wireless technology used by the communication channel, the use of TCP/IP v4 protocol according to RFC1180 could assure the interoperability of the platform. The application protocol allowed could be ftp, http, ssl and services like http/http over ssl (https) server and ftp/ftp over ssl (ftps) server could be
available either on the On Board system or on the Application Server.
Energy Saving Strategies
All Data gathered from the energy meters are necessary input for RU in their energy management work. In the previous clauses we describe all “Building Blocks” necessary to set-up a Data Warehouse Intelligence on Energy Usage. The use of the gathered data for billing purpose is the simplest one. A little bit more complex is
to set up an Energy Information System able to manage data on vehicles and journeys, run time energy data and situational data like organizational data and weather condition .
The EN 50463 norm is based on the joint design and engineering effort of numerous colleagues. They have brought their expertise together to make it happen. We want to present our credits to the whole Cenelec CLC TC9X WG11 team for the challenging and stimulating environment. Finally, we like to express our sincere thanks to Mr. Carlo Fasoli, Convener of the WG11.
AAA - Authentication, Authorization And Accounting
.EN 50463 - Railway applications – Energy measurement on-board trains