The following two papers was presented at the
WCRR2011 (World Congress on Railway Research 2011)

The European Energy Measurement System on board of trains

A. Gatti, A. Ghelardini - Trenitalia S.p.A., Firenze, Italy

Paper  presented at the WCRR2011 (World Congress on Railway Research 2011)


The liberalization of the European railway markets,  pushed by separation between infrastructure and carrier companies in each European country,  leads to an increase of cross-border traffic. In this new scenario market competition and cost transparency will make the difference.
Sustainable development efforts already mandatory in EU Countries leads to some changes to the current energy management: this will force the passage from conventional consumption cost to cost based on effective consumption for traction energy. So, new energy billing rules will be used into interoperable railways network.
Billing and Energy Saving purposes data exchange, not limited to simple file transfers, drives to a near real time communication infrastructure between train and ground. The cross-border services either in terms of Country boundary or Tariff Boundary drive to an Open Communication Infrastructure.
The installation of energy meters on board and new settlement systems will help to achieve the goal of full interoperability for railway traffic in Europe and will finally facilitate the free market for Railway Undertakings (RUs).
The resulting operational environment will make possible a new correct approach for energy consumption of traction energy with energy saving and reduction costs.
Trenitalia efforts are focused mainly in defining an open platform to implement and deploy the needed services for Energy saving and Billing purposes and in defining a suitable framework able to manage the Certification Process of the Energy Measurement System (EMS).
The train it is a moving object and it’s not a fixed building. The Energy Measurement System is the first mobile energy meter in the history of human being. EMS is an on board equipment that shall first conforms to railway regulations and standardizations and then to comply with metrological  requirements.
The reference framework also deals with a large number of already existing vehicles that need to be retrofitted with EMS, so the installation design plays a significant role.
Inside the Life Cycle of the vehicles the EMS certification process is more than a metrological assessment.
A description related to the different phases  of the Certification approach will be presented ranging from the Component homologation  to the EMS installation certification.
This framework is proposed by Trenitalia as a standard solution in Cenelec  TC9X WG11.


The new Trenitalia fault tolerant high speed Ethernet Train Network development.

A solution for deployment also on the existing high speed train fleets.

Antonio Ghelardini, Andrea Gatti , D. Russo and P. Masini  - Trenitalia S.p.A., Firenze, Italy

Paper  presented at the WCRR2011 (World Congress on Railway Research 2011)

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Design presented to “Create the Future Design Contest 2011”


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Trenitalia target: develop a fault tolerant standard Ethernet high speed train network to deploy high quality multimedia services.
Trenitalia needs: Fully switched train network backbone with standard IEEE 802.1Q (Vlan and QoS) features
For new designs the goal is achieved with a specialized high performance solution: a dual-Gigabit Ethernet Fault Tolerant Train Network as stated in Trenitalia Technical Document 375590 and proposed by Trenitalia as a Gigabit Ethernet standard solution in IEC TC9 WG43 and WG46.
The new design is not suitable for existing Trenitalia high speed fleets (ETR500 and ETR485). Due to several  constraints like the strong requirements to be compliant with existing maintenance cycles, so avoiding the forced consist unavailability to deploy the new services and shortening deployment time, a new network design was developed.
The new design was almost the same as in 375590, but downsized in terms of backbone capacity to be fitted in existing trains with existing dual parallel coaxial cabling available: a Dual Fast Ethernet fault tolerant train network was developed fully re-using existing coaxial cabling, this implies no specialized high speed data cabling rewiring.
The existing services as the Onboard Public Announce  and passengers related sound services will be upgraded to new VOIP based services. The forecast to deploy the system is one year time for the whole fleet.
The availability of a standard and  high performance train backbone Ethernet network will allow to deploy new multimedia services on existing fleets.


Power Line Communication:
a new approach for Train Passenger Information Systems

This paper was presented at the
WCRR2008 (World Congres on Railway Research 2008)


D. Russo, A. Gatti, A. Ghelardini, G. Mancini - Trenitalia S.p.A., Firenze, Italy
A. Verduci - TSF S.p.A., Bologna, Italy - D. Amato, R. Battani - Sadel S.p.A., Bologna, Italy


Standard train communication between different railway vehicles usually works on Wire Train Bus (WTB), with physical layer commonly on line 17-18 (TCN) or 7-8 (TCN* used by Trenitalia on older 13 poles train bus) of UIC cable.
Devices transmitting information on TCN or TCN* lines can be divided in two different categories: “critical systems” (driver desk, motor control, brakes, track signals, power electronics,), mainly used for command and control systems and “non critical systems” (passenger audio, passenger video, vehicle diagnostics) that usually have no real-time requirements.
In this paper we consider an alternative approach dividing “critical devices” and “non critical devices” and defining a new physical and communication layer for “non critical devices”.
In this alternative approach, the physical layer is deployed either on coaxial cables (commonly used for passenger audio on trainset) or UIC cable (on other trains). In the last case communication lines are placed on already used wires, like line 1 and 2, used for voice and general audio information to passengers, or line 10 and 11, used as remote control of train lights.
The transport of information on these lines is performed with a power line communication module (PLC). Each PLC provides an interface with a band-pass filter to avoid interference with existing audio and light systems. The main parameters of PLC communications are the transmission bandwidth (normally expressed in ranges of kHz or MHz) and theoretical bits per second rate (bps) reached during the communication.
This network architecture can be used both at train or vehicle level, providing two separated layers like the architecture adopted for WTB and MVB communication. In this system a PLCNODE is defined as the transceiver allowing bridging from train to vehicle networks and viceversa.
This architecture is currently under test on some Italian commuter trains, equipped with an “OBoE” system which broadcast updated journey information to “DOVE6” video devices connected with a PLC based network.

From Fifth to Vector

This paper was presented at the
WCRR2006 (World Congres on Railway Research 2006)


A. Gatti, Trenitalia S.p.a. Direzione Ingegneria, Sicurezza e Qualità di Sistema - Firenze, Italy
F. Monfardini Trenitalia S.p.a. Direzione Ingegneria, Sicurezza e Qualità di Sistema - Firenze, Italy


FIFTH was a project of the European Commission developed entirely in Italy and assigned to an industrial consortium led by Alenia Spazio with Trenitalia as a partner. Fifth experiment multimedia services like digital television, Web TV and Internet on high speed trains using a broadband satellite as the main means of communication. The project tested the provision of mobile, QoS-sensitive, Internet and video-streaming services to the passengers at coach level.
In following that experience, Trenitalia start an exploitation program of the broadband bi-directional services at train level: the VECTOR project where the Fifth is a component of the whole system.
The VECTOR (Velocity, Entertainment, Connectivity and Technology On Railway) system is the name of the passenger information system; it will be installed on board of the ETR500 High Speed Train fleet.
The system is based on a double Gigabit Ethernet line running along the whole train; the project will test the cable connection between coaches either in the Fiber optic solution or in the Copper Gigabit Ethernet solution. The train-ground is a three way link based on satellite, Wi-Fi router and EDGE/GPRS connections, the information are distributed to the passengers with a Wi-Fi network.
The “mobile environment” and the requirements of bandwidth allocation lead to find adhoc solutions and obligate to define new standard (the knowledge of the Train Mobile Environment was matured by Trenitalia also during the Traincom and Euromain EU project).
The application at train level present several aspects related to the actual situation present on board. The solutions derived from industrial and civil application aren’t suitable for the rolling stock environment.
The environmental condition , the constraints derived from the distribution of energy, the management of the power supply, wiring and cabling solution, obligate to find dedicated solutions for architecture design.
Other important topic is related to the fire behavior of the components of the system imposed by the technical specifications for interoperability (TSIs)



La ricerca europea per la manutenzione ferroviaria:
il progetto EuRoMain

Ing. Paolo Umiliacchi – Evaluation Manager del progetto EuRoMain
 Centro Nuova Comunicazione – Bologna
Ing. Gianfranco Cau - Trenitalia  - Unità Tecnologie Materiale Rotabile
 Responsabile treni ETR e a composizione bloccata - Firenze
Sig. Andrea Gatti - Trenitalia  - Unità Tecnologie Materiale Rotabile - Firenze

Articolo presentato al XXI Congresso nazionale AIMAN
15-16 settembre 2004
"La Manutenzione: processi e competenze"

Il progetto EuRoMain si pone l’obiettivo di completare, integrare ed espandere la definizione di un sistema di manutenzione ferroviario, includendo:

  • contributi a specifiche tecniche per l’interoperabilità ed a proposte di standard europei;
  • architettura e piattaforma standard per la rete europea dei dati diagnostici (EDDN), includendo i formati dei dati e la definizione del database diagnostico;
  • specifiche e piattaforma standard per la rete europea della documentazione tecnica (ETDN), includendo i dizionari ed i modelli dei documenti e le regole di codifica;
  • infrastruttura per la standardizzazione e l’interoperabilità delle applicazioni per la logistica (LASI), includendo il database delle configurazioni e le interfacce verso applicazioni di terze parti.

In particolare, EDDN renderà possibile lo scambio di dati in formato elettronico, tenendo in considerazione le esigenze degli Utenti in termini di:

  • confidenzialità delle informazioni, che debbono essere accessibili solo a personale autorizzato;
  • integrità dei dati, che non debbono poter essere corrotti da interventi umani o fattori casuali;
  • autenticazione dei messaggi, sulla cui provenienza è importante poter essere certi;
  • disponibilità dei dati, che dovranno essere accessibili in ogni momento;
  • prestazioni del sistema, che deve consentire tempi di reazione ragionevoli.

ETDN risolverà il problema dell’interscambio di documenti tecnici tra operatori (anche in paesi diversi) e tra industrie (ad es. con i sub-fornitori), mediante la definizione di specifiche non proprietarie e standardizzate, che consentiranno un migliore supporto ai processi manutentivi. La soluzione consentirà di ridurre i costi ed aumentare l’efficienza, portando alle ferrovie quei benefici già raggiunti in altri settori di trasporto (ad es. aeronautica).
Infine LASI porterà ad una maggiore usabilità degli strumenti tipici della manutenzione, integrandoli perfettamente con i formati e le funzionalità definite da EDDN ed ETDN.


Trains as mobile devices
The Dynamic Insertion Network Object (DINO) concept.
The EU Traincom project approach

This paper was presented at the
WCRR2003 (World Congres on Railway Research 2003) in Edinburgh


Network interoperability, train network, Service provisioning, Wireless network, Communication architecture
Main goal of the TrainCom project is the integration of the trains in the operators intranets.  The train should not appear to the user as an opaque object, but there should be a transparent  access to each “end device” inside the train. The idiom “end device” is not restricted to a physical device. It also can be the implementation of a function or service using several physical devices. The network inside the train is built by a “train bus” and a “vehicle bus”. The ROGATE is the device that offers to the ground station/network an interface which allows to access each end device in the train by an IP address. The implementation of the ROGATE depend on train architecture, possible implementaions are router like, which routes the TCP/IP packets over TCP/IP network inside the train to the end device, or  proxy like, which translates the communication to the train network, e.g. TCN. The TrainCom communication infrastructure shall integrate Internet technology with radio technologies (e.g. GSM/GSM-R, 2.5G and 3G) and train communication (e.g. TCN). The communication architecture shall be used for passenger information, monitoring, maintenance and fleet management. The TrainCom communication infrastructure  is open and not be restricted to a specific implementation of radio link or train communication. Usually, the train needs to be logged-in and out in the network. One of the most challenging characteristics of  networks in trains are the dynamics in the train networks during coupling/decoupling, etc. The word “train” needs a deep explanation. Some of these definition are related to physical vehicle without relationship about commercial services, others are related to commercial service. Two different modes of access are requested: (a)direct access to a specific vehicle regardless where it is; (b)access to a specific Running Train, regardless which consists build it. The consist is declared ready to scheduled service and linked to a “Running Train Identifier”. We have to distinguish different types of dynamics like trains that start/end their run, vehicle coupling/decoupling, addedd or removed devices, new functionality etc. To meet all requirements needed by these types of dynamics it is necessary to address them using the right approach: from the fleet management point of view if we analyse the figures about the amount of trains involved daily, we recognise the maintenance of this process is very resources consuming. Rather than requiring explicit installation and removal from the network, this kind of network environment calls for components that are able to join and leave the network in a far more ad hoc fashion. The DINO concept follow the approach of Train profile/vehicle profile to solve these aspects. A suitable way to solve the problem and perform the task is using Jini technology. The use of Jini technology simplifies the development of distributed systems because Jini forces distributed systems developers to deal with the network in early stages of development. Jini is not just a programming library to implement distributed systems, but a new paradigm for development of distributed system.

Tains as Mobile devices: The TrainCom project

Peresented to the

Wireless Design Conerence 2002

 London 15-17 May 2002

The TRAINCOM is a research project partially funded by the European Community under the "Information Society Technologies" Programme 1998-2002, it involves 14 participants of 7 countries with an effort of 650 pms, it will end in December 2003. The project aims to fully specify and develop a communication system for telematic applications in the railway field, integrating the on-board network, 2G-3G radio links and Internet technologies. A train, as a cluster of devices connected by a network, is "a mobile user" that is performing some services like passenger information, train identification and fleet management. The train is connected to the ground section with a set of wireless connection and is capable to switch between them "on the fly" regarding the requirement of bandwidth requested by the "service".

Internet e sistemi embedded - MokaByte n°33 del  settembre 1999

In molte applicazioni, il controllo e il monitoraggio remoto non sono prestazioni nuove; da tempo sono  utilizzate connessioni seriali con PC, terminali e reti per scopi diagnostici, in altri casi sono utilizzate connessioni telefoniche per un accesso su richiesta. Queste interfacce sono state spesso progettate ad hoc, dedicate al dispositivo specifico. In altri casi, per ottenere un codice il più compatto possibile per   l'interfaccia dal lato "embedded", sono state create delle interfacce utente semplificate con codici di limite della criptatura.

A new approach of the Human Interface in the driver's cab of italian
- Presented to the KOREMA 1996 Split Ancona

The requirement of virtuality is foreseen to be very strong on the human interface nowadays and in the next future. Instrumentation and diagnostics visualisation are now asking for on the fly changing of functional parameters and languages on demand of the driver as it is on an international locomotive crossing the border between Italy and France or Italy and Austria.

The introduction of networking is asking for a distributed architecture and virtual functions at application level.

The paper describes a human interface that is based on a colour display and a microprocessor control unit capable of executing macro functions remotely loaded.

This human interface is suited for instrumentation and diagnostic data presentation which are believed to have no safe constraints; the safety aspects are analysed in the last part of the paper and hints are given for the design. Finally future trend is evaluated.

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